By Michael Clyne
Australia is a rustic with a large range of languages in an international during which there are extra multilinguals than monolinguals. This ebook explores the anomaly of a country wealthy in language assets, but characterised via monolingual pondering. With perception and keenness, Michael Clyne illustrates the ways that our language assets will be consolidated and additional constructed for common profit.
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Extra info for Australia's Language Potential
Such a differentiation would do justice to the language behaviour of plurilinguals. Functional specialisation between languages is what makes using more than one language particularly worthwhile, because it creates communicative need. One language is used exclusively for particular purposes, whether it is for communicating at home or for learning Science and Social Studies at school. The other may then be employed for communication outside the home or for learning other subjects at school. Such functional differentiation creates communicative need: you have to understand and/or speak the AustLanguagePotential04 15/8/05 12:39 PM Page 28 2 8 • AU S T R A L I A ’ S L A N G UAG E P OT E N T I A L language to be able to satisfy your needs, whether they are getting food, receiving vital information or learning a particular subject.
Particular conventions of a language are sufficient to perform speech acts such as a promise, a request, an apology or an invitation, or a rejection of an invitation. These conventions will vary across languages and cultures. 13 In either case, different languages and cultures have differing ways of achieving things; they have different ways of being polite. By having been raised in two (or more) contexts, plurilinguals are often able to behave differently according to the speech partner, situation and venue.
Sounds and prosodic (intonation) patterns are also stored together. At the formulation stage, words are selected abstractly – that is, for their syntactic properties and, in the case of nouns, for their genders in languages where this is an issue. Abstract units called lemmas are tagged for each language, and separate lemmas are necessitated for a concept common to two or more languages, since different information has to be accessed. The neurolinguist Michel Paradis has formulated a number of hypotheses about how the languages of a plurilingual can be connected in the brain.
Australia's Language Potential by Michael Clyne