By Gary Y. Okihiro
Tough the present view of Hawaii as a legendary "racial paradise," Gary Okihiro offers this heritage of a scientific anti-Japanese move within the islands from the time migrant employees have been dropped at the sugar cane fields till the top of worldwide warfare II. He demonstrates that the racial discrimination opposed to eastern americans that happened at the West Coast through the moment international warfare heavily paralleled the fewer conventional oppression of Hawaii's eastern, which developed from the construction wishes of the sugar planters to the military's crisis over the "menace of alien domination." Okihiro convincingly argues that these issues inspired the consolidation of the plantation proprietors, the Territorial executive, and the U.S. military-Hawaii's elite-into a unmarried strength that propelled the anti-Japanese stream, whereas the army devised mystery plans for martial legislations and the elimination and detention of eastern american citizens in Hawaii 20 years sooner than international conflict II. writer word: Gary Y. Okihiro is affiliate Professor of background at Cornell collage.
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Additional resources for Cane Fires: The Anti-Japanese Movement in Hawaii, 1865-1945
The oligarchy had spun a web of control over every major aspect of Island life," explained Fuchs. "To dominate, in its view, was not a lustful, greedy ambition. The goal was not just power; nor was it wealth or prestige. " 35 To build that city upon the hill, however, the oligarchy required land, which it possessed in abundance, and laborers who were cheap but efficient and responsive to instruction. Laborers for Hawaii's industrial agriculture were difficult to obtain, as William Hooper had discovered at Koloa plantation in 1835.
If we thought the lunas were coming, we were afraid .... The lunas might or might not come once in a day, but we were always scared that they'd come. We couldn't understand their speech, and so we couldn't answer at all. " 56 A hole hole bushi contrasted the dream of "wonderful Hawaii" with its bitter reality: Wonderful Hawaii, or so I heard. One look and it seems like Hell. The manager's the Devil and His lunas are demons. " 58 Worker docility and obedience were not left to choice, however, but coerced through the "strong hand" of authority.
20 In November 1887, faced with a Reform cabinet and legislature, Kalakaua signed the "supplementary convention" that gave the United States exclusive use of Pearl Harbor as a naval station. Although the putative 1889 anti-Reform rebellion, led by part-Hawaiian Robert W. Wilcox, was easily squelched, anti-haole sentiment continued to grow after Kalakaua's death and Queen Liliuokalani's accession in 1891. Liliuokalani, who promised a new constitution and a restoration of the powers of the monarchy, threatened the white elite's revolution of 1887.
Cane Fires: The Anti-Japanese Movement in Hawaii, 1865-1945 by Gary Y. Okihiro