By S.C. Wood (auth.), Mogens L. Glass, Stephen C. Wood (eds.)
The concentration of this ebook is the evolution of cardiovascular and respiration keep an eye on in vertebrates. existence originated in water, which has consistently altering temperatures and O2 degrees. Fish gills can extract as much as eighty% in their encouraged O2, simply because they've got a countercurrent bloodstream. Oxygen sensors were came across in the gill arches of ray-finned fish reminiscent of carp and trout, and those O2 sensors display the encouraged water and the capillary blood.
Very most probably, land vertebrates and the lungfish arose as a sister workforce, and either own genuine lungs. Lungfish comprise 6 species, inhabiting shallow lakes or rivers, while the second one ramification contains all of the land vertebrates. a potential ancestor to the lungfish and land vertebrates has been came upon in China, and this fossil (Styloichthys) bridges a spot. residing 417 million years in the past, it may symbolize one of many final ramifications ahead of the typical ancestor to the lungfish and land vertebrates. moreover, really consistent atmospheric O2 degrees let a joint acid-base law by means of the lung and the kidney. Likewise, lungfish and land vertebrates proportion a primary regulate of pulmonary air flow, whereas the peripheral receptor contribution to acid-base law is minor.
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Extra resources for Cardio-Respiratory Control in Vertebrates: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects
1984), meaning that at physiological pH approximately 95% of Tamm is carried as NH+ 4. 1 Toxicity Ammonia is the most toxic of the respiratory gases and must be continually removed from the body through either conversion into less toxic compounds (urea, uric acid) or excretion. Most terrestrial animals make use of the former strategy, and only encounter elevated levels of ammonia when experiencing pathological conditions such as hepatic encephalopathy. With the exception of the ureotelic elasmobranchs and a few unusual teleosts such as the Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) (Mommsen and Walsh 1989) and the Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami) (Randall et al.
Respiration Physiology 93:97–110 Burleson ML, Smatresk NJ, Milsom WK (1992) Afferent inputs associated with cardioventilatory control in fish. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, Farrell AP (eds) Fish Physiology, vol XIIB: The Cardiovascular System. Academic, San Diego, pp 389–423 Burleson ML, Carlton AL, Silva PE (2002) Cardioventilatory effects of acclimatization to aquatic hypoxia in channel catfish. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 131:223–232 Burleson ML, Mercer SE, Wilk-Blaszczak MA (2006) Isolation and characterization of putative O2 chemoreceptor cells from the gills of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).
AE was supported by an NSERC postdoctoral fellowship. References Albrecht J, Wegrzynowicz M (2005) Endogenous neuro-protectants in ammonia toxicity in the central nervous system: facts and hypotheses. Metabolic Brain Disease 20:253–263 Allert N, Koller H, Siebler M (1998) Ammonia-induced depolarization of cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Brain Research 782:261–270 Avella M, Bornacin M (1989) A new analysis of ammonia and sodium transport through the gills of freshwater rainbow trout (Salmo gardneri).
Cardio-Respiratory Control in Vertebrates: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects by S.C. Wood (auth.), Mogens L. Glass, Stephen C. Wood (eds.)