By American Society of Metals
This booklet deals a suite of ASM instruction manual articles on how engineering plastics are characterised when it comes to homes and function. It methods the topic of characterization from a basic perspective of engineering layout, fabrics choice, and failure research. the 1st part int
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Extra info for Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics
In isotactic polymers (Fig. 5b) the side chains all extend from the same side of the backbone, while in syndiotactic polymers they alternate sides (Fig. 5c). This regularity facilitates crystallization. Fig. 5 Inherent Flexibility. Before expanding the scope of consideration to include interactions between neighboring molecules, it is important to appreciate the inherent flexibility of the backbone of any given molecule. In this discussion it is first assumed that every carbon-carbon bond segment is completely free to assume any position as long as the equilibrium requirement that the carbon-carbon bond angle be maintained at 109° is met.
An alternative bond that nitrogen can form with carbon is an extremely rigid triple bond. This nitrile group is instrumental in generating high-modulus, heat-resistant engineering plastics such as styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymers and acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene (ABS). 0. Its small atomic radius means that the carbon-fluorine bond length is very short. The strong bonds it forms with carbon impart low surface energy to fluoropolymers and allow them to be used for nonwetting applications such as nonstick cookware.
4 for many polymers, as shown in Fig. 4. In the elevatedslope region, molecular entanglements inhibit molecular slippage. The increased occurrence of physical chain entanglements associated with higher MWs accounts for the elevation of melt viscosity. Below Mc the chains are short enough to align in the direction of flow and to slip past each other with relative ease. Once the critical length has been achieved, entangled polymers offer more resistance to the stresses inducing flow. This property, associated with the high MWs of engineering plastics, dramatically distinguishes them from Newtonian rheological behavior as is further explored in the section “Thermal and Mechanical Properties” in this article.
Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics by American Society of Metals