By Michael Grubb, Joyeeta Gupta (auth.), Joyeeta Gupta, Michael Grubb (eds.)
The factor of weather swap is now largely regarded as one of many significant demanding situations for mankind within the twenty first century, not just since it may possibly finally have an effect on many components of the environment, nature and human job but in addition simply because its mitigation could have some distance achieving effects for the majority sectors of the economic climate the place power conversion happens. even though weather switch is firmly located at the political schedule and a few preliminary goals were agreed inside of an international framework, we're nonetheless distant from a mature political and sensible coverage that can carry well timed and applicable effects .to tum the tide. this can be partially as a result advanced nature of a potential worldwide weather swap regime, the nonetheless early level of the improvement of potent and effective tools and the big variety of attainable ramifications for person nations and monetary sectors. however it can also be a result of complexity of the negotiation approach, and the shortcoming of potent foreign or maybe international governance and management to take on a multi-dimensional challenge of this dimension and nature. This publication is the 1st huge try and tackle the problem of management via one of many significant events to the UN Framework conference on weather swap within the ongoing overseas debate and negotiations in the direction of one of these coverage which necessarily needs to be built on an international scale.
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Extra resources for Climate Change and European Leadership: A Sustainable Role for Europe?
Another important objective for the Commission was to develop an impressive package of measures that could be presented at the United Nations' Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992. The Directorates-General for Environment and for Energy (DG XI and XVII) were in charge of these efforts. There was a considerable struggle within the Commission and between the Member States concerning the choice of policy instruments. Several options were discussed, including fiscal and economic instruments, energy efficiency measures, speed limits and improved transport management (Skjrerseth 1993a: 16-18).
In addition, such a tax would look good externally. If adopted, it would have considerably bolstered Environment Commissioner di Meana's position at the 1992 Rio Conference. However, due to the consensus requirements in EU 'fiscal ' environmental policies (also after Maastricht), it was clear from the start that this was bound to be an ambitious and controversial proposal. It was initially suggested that there should be no C02 levy, since this would favour nuclear power. The proposed tax was thus a so-called h ybrid carbon/energy tax, starting with $3/barrel in 1993, increasing by $1 annually 3.
Questions about internal implementation, particularly in the energy sector, thus loom large. Third, many important specific issues remain concerning the implementation of the institutional structures agreed in Kyoto. These include 10 Michael Grubb and Joyeeta Gupta crucial debates about 'principles, modalities, rules and guidelines' for emissions trading, and the development of the articles on Policies and Measures. These issues are explored further in Chapter 10 of this book. Finally, many issue-areas of the regime have not yet even reached the stage of significant development.
Climate Change and European Leadership: A Sustainable Role for Europe? by Michael Grubb, Joyeeta Gupta (auth.), Joyeeta Gupta, Michael Grubb (eds.)