By Vyvyan Evans
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Additional resources for Cognitive Linguistics. An Introduction
G. people, things, places, properties, etc. g. number, time reference, old vs. new, statement vs. question, etc. A further important distinction between these two subsystems concerns the way that language changes over time. The elements that comprise the lexical (open-class) subsystem make up a large and constantly changing set in any given human language; over a period of time, words that are no longer ‘needed’ disappear and new ones appear. The ‘grammatical’ (closed-class) elements that make up the grammatical subsystem, on the other hand, constitute a smaller set, relatively speaking, and are much more stable.
Do these abstract concepts appear to be understood in terms of concrete physical experiences? What is the evidence for your conclusions? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) You’ve just given me a really good idea. How much time did you spend on this essay? He fell into a deep depression. The Stock Market crashed on Black Wednesday. Unfortunately, your argument lacks a solid foundation. 6. For each one, state the sentence that springs first to mind as the most natural way of describing the scene. For example, for the scene in (a), you might come up with The goldfish is in the bowl.
We can conclude from this that the linear arrangement of the words in the sentence constitutes part of an individual’s knowledge of idiomatic constructions like (6). This point is also illustrated by an ungrammatical sentence, a sentence that does not correspond to any of the formal patterns associated with the constructions of English, as in (9), and consequently does not have a conventional meaning associated with it. Ungrammaticality is indicated by an asterisk: (9) *Bucket kicked he the As we noted above, the sentence in (6) qualifies as a construction because it consists of particular words arranged in a particular order, and these words are conventionally associated with a particular (idiomatic) meaning.
Cognitive Linguistics. An Introduction by Vyvyan Evans