New PDF release: Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application

By J. Shore

ISBN-10: 0901956783

ISBN-13: 9780901956781

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Such hydrolysable esters are sometimes sold under proprietary trade names. The disadvantages of hydrolysable esters have been their higher cost, a limited pH range and, where the dyebath is to be reused, the need for increasing quantities of ester to overcome the buffering effect caused by the accumulation of salts [7,16]. Interest in these systems has declined due to environmental pressures on the one hand and the increased availability and sophistication of automatic dosing and monitoring systems on the other.

It thus makes sense to choose electrolytes carefully and to use the minimum amounts consistent with obtaining the desired effects. Automatic dosing is helpful in this respect. The use of shorter liquor ratios has been promoted on the grounds of economy (less water to heat and less liquor to treat subsequently). However, it should not be overlooked that when dyeing in a short liquor more rinsing baths are required to give the same residual concentration as at a longer liquor ratio. Weible [5] has demonstrated this effect for the washing-off of reactive dyes from fabric having a retention capacity of 4 l/kg using 60 g/l of electrolyte.

8. Acetic acid with ammonium acetate is also used although it is less effective, especially in those boiling dyebaths from which ammonia can escape into the atmosphere, thus allowing the pH to fall. Such acetate buffers have the advantage of low cost. Somewhat more expensive are the phosphate buffers, of which the most commonly used is a mixture of sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate (NaH2PO4) with disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (Na2HPO4). Here, as with most polybasic acid systems, the distinction between the acid and its salt seems blurred at first sight.

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Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties by J. Shore

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