By B. Martinac, A. H. Delcour, M. Buechner, J. Adler, C. Kung (auth.), Professor Fumio Ito (eds.)
In the earlier five years there was a tremendous raise of facts that the ion channels activated via mechanical strength are universal to a large choice of cellphone kinds. Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels shape a small share of the complete channel inhabitants. they're now present in greater than 30 mobile forms from E. coli, yeast, to plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate cells, the place they ensue in almost all kinds of cells from bone to soft muscle, in addition to neurons. nearly all of MS channels are permeable to monovalent cations and are just a little selective for okay+ over Na +. How 2 ever, there are numerous stories of anion-selective MS channels, MS Ca + channels, and MS channels with huge conductances that don't dis criminate markedly among cations and anions. lately B. Hille has postulated attainable evolutionary relationships among different types of ion channels, with mechanosensitive channels predating even the eukaryotes. voltage-gated channel kinds originate with the stem eukaryotes, as deduced from the presence of voltage-gated ok+ 2 and Ca + channels in protozoa, algae, or better vegetation. Agonist-gated chan nels in addition to voltage-gated Na + channels look with the earliest metazoan animals, as deduced from the presence of Na + spikes and quick chemical synapses in cnidaria (coelenterates), ctenophores, and all larger animals.
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Extra info for Comparative Aspects of Mechanoreceptor Systems
Science 240:1439-1443 Braam J, Davis RW (1990) Rain-, wind-, and touch-induced expression of calmodulin and calmodulin-related genes in Arabidopsis. Cell 60:357-364 Brown AD (1978) Compatible solutes and extreme water stress in eukaryotic microorganisms. ) Heynh. Plant PhysioI93:525-531 Burdon-Sanderson J (1882) On the electromotive properties of the leaf of Dionaea in the excited and unexcited states. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 173:1-53 Cahalan MD, Lewis RS (1988) Role of potassium and chloride channels in volume regulation by T lymphocytes.
1978), and techniques such as the pressure probe (Zimmermann et al. 1969) for measuring and manipUlating turgor pressure have been invaluable. Decreasing the osmolarity of the extracellular media (Gutknecht et al. 1978) or experimental injection of oil into the cell causes a sudden increase in turgor pressure and rapid swelling of the cell (Zimmermann and Steudle 1974). Generally, this swelling does not exceed a few percent of total cell volume. The relationship between pressure changes and volume changes is determined by the elastic properties of the cell wall as in the following equation (Philip 1958): M> = E AV V' (8) where M> =change in turgor pressure, E =volumetric elastic modulus (a measure of the mechanical properties of the cell wall), AV = change in cell volume, and V = total cell volume.
During this experiment, the membrane potential was held at +40 mV to reduce the extent of adaptation. At the highest pressures, some adaptation was observed. eo 3 ~ 1- 2 0 2 4 6 Pressure (kN . m -2 ) 8 10 Fig. 5. Pressure dependence of MS channel currents in a yeast spheroplast before (first) and after (second) adaptation. See text for experimental details. Whole-cell outward currents were measured and normalized to cell area using cell capacitance (1 pF = 100 ~m2). Solutions and temperature as in Fig.
Comparative Aspects of Mechanoreceptor Systems by B. Martinac, A. H. Delcour, M. Buechner, J. Adler, C. Kung (auth.), Professor Fumio Ito (eds.)