Download e-book for kindle: Environmental justice analysis : theories, methods, and by Feng Liu

By Feng Liu

ISBN-10: 1566704030

ISBN-13: 9781566704038

content material: bankruptcy 1 Environmental Justice, fairness, and regulations --
1.1 Environmental Justice circulate 1 --
1.2 Environmental Justice rules five --
1.3 Environmental Justice research 10 --
bankruptcy 2 Theories and Hypotheses --
2.1 Theories of Justice and fairness 19 --
2.1.1 Utilitarianism 20 --
2.1.2 Contractarianism and Egalitarianism 22 --
2.1.3 Libertarianism 23 --
2.1.4 Which idea? 24 --
2.2 financial conception and site concept 26 --
2.2.1 Externality and Public items 27 --
2.2.2 Welfare Economics 28 --
2.2.3 Residential position conception 30 --
2.2.4 commercial position conception 33 --
2.3 Theories of hazard 34 --
2.3.1 Psychometric idea 35 --
2.3.2 anticipated software thought 36 --
2.3.3 Cultural conception 36 --
2.3.4 Sociological idea 37 --
2.4 Theories of local swap 37 --
2.4.1 Classical Invasion-Succession version 38 --
2.4.2 local Life-Cycle version 39 --
2.4.3 Push-Pull version forty --
2.4.4 Institutional idea of local switch forty-one --
bankruptcy three method and Analytical Framework for Environmental Justice and fairness research --
3.1 Inquiry and Environmental Justice research forty five --
3.1.1 Positivism and Participatory learn forty five --
3.1.2 medical Reasoning forty seven --
3.1.3 Validity forty seven --
3.1.4 Causality fifty one --
3.2 Methodological concerns in Environmental Justice study fifty two --
3.3 built-in Analytical Framework fifty five --
bankruptcy four Measuring Environmental and Human affects --
4.1 Environmental and Human affects: ideas and methods sixty one --
4.2 Modeling and Simulating Environmental dangers sixty five --
4.2.1 Modeling publicity sixty six --
4.2.1.1 Emission versions sixty seven --
4.2.1.2 Dispersion versions sixty nine --
4.2.1.3 Time-Activity styles and publicity versions seventy one --
4.2.2 Modeling Dose-Response seventy two --
4.3 Measuring and Modeling fiscal affects seventy five --
4.3.1 Contingent Valuation process seventy five --
4.3.2 Hedonic expense approach seventy six --
4.4 Measuring Environmental and Human affects for Environmental Justice research eighty one --
4.5 Critique and reaction of a Risk-Based method of fairness research 86 --
bankruptcy five Quantifying and Projecting inhabitants Distribution --
5.1 Census ninety three --
5.2 inhabitants Measurements: who's deprived? ninety five --
5.2.1 Race and Ethnicity ninety six --
5.2.2 source of revenue ninety nine --
5.2.3 hugely vulnerable of uncovered Subpopulations 104 --
5.2.4 Age a hundred and five --
5.2.5 Housing 107 --
5.2.6 schooling 108 --
5.3 inhabitants Distribution 108 --
5.4 inhabitants Projection and Forecast a hundred and ten --
5.4.1 tools 111 --
5.4.2 selecting the right strategy 113 --
bankruptcy 6 Defining devices of study --
6.1 Debate on selection of Unit of study 117 --
6.2 Census Geography: suggestions, standards, and Hierarchy one hundred twenty --
6.2.1 uncomplicated Hierarchy: average Geographic devices one hundred twenty --
6.2.2 Non-Standard Geographic devices 126 --
6.3 Census Geography as a Unit of fairness research: Consistency, comparison, and Availability 128 --
6.3.1 Hierarchical courting and Geographic Boundary 128 --
6.3.2 Boundary comparison through the years 129 --
6.3.3 facts Availability and comparison over the years 131 --
6.4 Census Geography as a Unit of fairness research: Which One? 133 --
6.5 substitute devices of study 139 --
6.5.1 in line with the Boundary of Environmental affects one hundred forty --
6.5.2 in accordance with the Boundary of Sociological local 141 --
6.5.3 in accordance with the Boundary of monetary affects 142 --
6.5.4 in accordance with the Administrative/Political Boundary or Judicial reviews 143 --
bankruptcy 7 studying facts with Statistical tools --
7.1 Descriptive statistics a hundred forty five --
7.2 Inferential information 149 --
7.3 Correlation and Regression 152 --
7.4 chance and Discrete selection types 156 --
7.5 Spatial facts 157 --
7.6 functions of Statistical tools in Environmental Justice reports 158 --
bankruptcy eight Integrating, studying, and Mapping info with GIS --
8.1 Spatial Measures and ideas 164 --
8.1.1 Spatials information 164 --
8.1.2 Spatial information constitution 164 --
8.1.3 Distance one hundred sixty five --
8.1.4 Centroid one hundred sixty five --
8.2 Spatial Interpolation a hundred sixty five --
8.2.1 element Interpolation 166 --
8.2.2 Areal Interpolation 167 --
8.3 GIS-Based devices of study for fairness research 168 --
8.3.1 Adjacency research 168 --
8.3.2 Buffer research 168 --
8.4 Overlay and Suitability research 172 --
8.5 GIS-Based Operationalization of fairness standards 174 --
8.6 Integrating GIS and concrete and Environmental types one hundred seventy five --
bankruptcy nine Modeling city platforms --
9.1 Gravity types, Spatial interplay, and Entropy Maximization 178 --
9.2 Deterministic application, Random software, and Discrete selection 181 --
9.2.1 Deterministic software and Optimization 182 --
9.2.2 Random software idea and Discrete selection 183 --
9.3 coverage evaluate Measures 184 --
9.4 Operational versions 186 --
9.5 Integrating city and Environmental types for Environmental Justice research 191 --
bankruptcy 10 fairness research of pollution --
10.1 Air caliber 195 --
10.2 courting among Air caliber and inhabitants Distribution: Theories, tools, and proof 199 --
10.2.1.1 Residential position idea and Spatial interplay 199 --
10.2.1.2 danger belief and Human reaction to Air caliber two hundred --
10.2.1.3 Theories of local alterations 201 --
10.3 Spatial interplay Modeling method of checking out Environmental Inequity 205 --
10.3.1 challenge Definition 205 --
10.3.2 speculation 205 --
10.3.3 equipment: Spatial interplay Modeling utilizing DRAM 205 --
10.3.4 Index building and knowledge practise 207 --
10.3.5 version Estimation 210 --
10.3.6.1 l. a. 213 --
10.3.6.2 Houston 215 --
10.4 fairness research of nationwide Ambient Air caliber criteria 219 --
10.4.3.1 Nonattainment parts as an entire 221 --
10.4.3.2 Spatial Distribution and local transformations 223 --
10.4.3.3 urban vs. Non-City Nonattainment components 230 --
10.4.3.4 significant Findings 233 --
10.4.3.5 Implications for Environmental coverage 234 --
bankruptcy eleven Environmental Justice research of dangerous Waste amenities, Superfund websites, and poisonous liberate amenities --
11.1 fairness research of unsafe Waste amenities 237 --
11.1.1 detrimental Wastes 237 --
11.1.2 fairness research of damaging Waste amenities 238 --
11.1.2.1 Cross-Sectional nationwide stories 239 --
11.1.2.2 nearby reviews 247 --
11.1.3 Methodological matters 248 --
11.2 fairness research of CERCLIS and Superfund websites 250 --
11.2.1 CERCLIS and Superfund websites 250 --
11.2.2 Hypotheses and Empirical facts 252 --
11.2.3 Methodological concerns 257 --
11.3 fairness research of poisonous free up amenities 258 --
11.3.1 poisonous Releases stock 258 --
11.3.2 nationwide reviews and proof 261 --
11.3.3 nearby reports and Methodological advancements 264 --
11.3.4 Methodological matters 266 --
bankruptcy 12 Dynamics research of in the community undesirable Land makes use of --
12.1 Methodological matters in Dynamics research 270 --
12.2 Framework for Dynamics research 273 --
12.3 Revisiting the Houston Case: speculation trying out 276 --
12.4 dialogue of other Hypotheses 279 --
12.4.1 Invasion-Succession speculation 279 --
12.4.2 Life-Cycle speculation 280 --
12.4.3 Push Forces: different Environmental dangers 282 --
bankruptcy thirteen fairness research of Transportation platforms, initiatives, Plans, and rules --
13.1 Environmental affects of Transportation platforms 287 --
13.2 Incorporating fairness research within the Transportation making plans procedure 288 --
13.3 Transportation method functionality Measures 291 --
13.4 fairness research of Mobility and Accessibility 292 --
13.4.2 utilizing Accessibility for fairness research 297 --
13.4.3 Empirical proof approximately Mobility Disparity three hundred --
13.4.4 Accessibility Disparity and Spatial Mismatch 302 --
13.5 Measuring Distributional affects on estate Values 304 --
13.6 Measuring Environmental affects 307 --
13.7 fairness research of Transportation regulations 308 --
13.8 Environmental Justice of Transportation in court docket 311 --
14.1 Internet-Based and Community-Based instruments 315 --
14.1.1 EPA's Environfacts 315 --
14.1.2 LandView III 317 --
14.1.3 Environmental Defense's Scorecard (http://www.scorecard.org/) 318.

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If this impact is strong enough, the industrial rent exceeds the residential rent at the new boundary and a further expansion of the industrial zone occurs. As a result, the equilibrium boundary is unstable. One implication is that polluting industries could drive away residents, whether white, black, brown, or red. Externalities among households occur when one social group has prejudice against another social group and the group with prejudice feels it suffers from the presence of the other group in their neighborhoods.

These may include a preference for residential homogeneity based on race and income, the attractiveness of single-use, lowerdensity residential areas with more open space and other amenities, and shifts in employment locations. Been’s hypothesis (1994) emphasizes the push effect of a LULU for those people who could afford to move and the pull effect of a LULU for the poor. The forces that a LULU can exert on a host community are twofold: making people who can afford to leave and making it desirable for the poor.

This debate touches on some of the fundamental questions regarding scientific inquiry. In this chapter, we first look at two paradigms for inquiry: positivism and the phenomenological perspective. Then, we examine validity and fallacies in scientific research and their manifestations in environmental justice analysis, and we discuss the concept of causality. 2, we briefly summarize major methodological issues in environmental justice research but leave the detailed discussion for subsequent chapters.

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Environmental justice analysis : theories, methods, and practice by Feng Liu


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