By Vadim Kuperman
This publication is meant as a text/reference for college students, researchers, and professors drawn to actual and biomedical purposes of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). either the theoretical and functional features of MRI are emphasised. The publication starts off with a entire dialogue of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) phenomenon in line with quantum mechanics and the classical thought of electromagnetism. the 1st 3 chapters of this publication give you the origin had to comprehend the elemental features of MR pictures, e.g.,image distinction, spatial answer, signal-to-noise ratio, universal picture artifacts. Then MRI functions are thought of within the following 5 chapters. either the theoretical and functional facets of MRI are emphasised. The publication ends with a dialogue of instrumentation and the rules of sign detection in MRI.
* transparent development from basic actual ideas of NMR to MRI and its applications
* large dialogue of photograph acquisition and reconstruction of MRI
* dialogue of other mechanisms of MR picture contrast
* Mathematical derivation of the signal-to-noise dependence on uncomplicated MR imaging parameters in addition to box strength
* In-depth attention of artifacts in MR images
* finished dialogue of numerous thoughts used for fast MR imaging together with quick gradient-echo imaging, echo-planar imaging, speedy spin-echo imaging and spiral imaging
* Qualitative dialogue mixed with mathematical description of MR thoughts for imaging movement
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Additional info for Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Principles and Applications (Electromagnetism)
Everywhere in this book we will assume that B1 is much smaller than B0. 4. f. interference, detection of the NMR signal is typically performed after excitation of the transverse magnetization in a sample. f. coil is given by emf--/ B1 0M ii au. 1) In this equation B1/Ic is the magnetic field produced by a unit current in the coil at the location of M. The integral in Eq. 1) is taken over the sample's volume. For simplicity we consider a long cylindrical coil of length L with N turns encompassing a sample of volume V.
7. Signal Attenuation Due to Diffusion Using Mxy = Mx +jMy equations 25 again we obtain from the preceding two OMx~/Ot = -Mxy/T2 -j~/GrMxy + DV2Mxy. 5) o where f(t) is an arbitrary function of time. By substituting the last equation into Eq. 4) and taking into account that f ( 0 ) = 1 we obtain / /Ii 12/ f(t) = exp -D~9 G dt" dt' . 6) o In a particular case when diffusion occurs in the presence of a timeindependent gradient G = k a z we have f ( t ) - exp(-D~/2a2zt3/3). In this case Mxy is given by Mxy = Mxy(O) e x p ( - t / T 2 - j T a z z t - D72G2zt3/3).
6) We can use Eq. 3) to determine the transverse magnetization generated by a sinc pulse. 7) where Tp - 2t0 is the duration of the pulse. In the case when Tp >> 1/cob, the integral in Eq. s) Notice that according to the above equation the transverse magnetization acquires a phase ~ - - T G T p z / 2 . Because of the accumulated phase, the signal from the excited slice will be very small if no measures to cancel this phase are taken. f. pulse applied in the absence of external field gradients provides an example of a frequency (spectrally) selective pulse that only excites a limited range of frequencies.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Principles and Applications (Electromagnetism) by Vadim Kuperman